> Azmaris once played an important role as social critics by improvising sophisticated texts of praise or criticism.[4] Azmaris would mock people in high places, and even Emperors were not spared if they were found to be unpopular with the public. Azmaris were the first to convey scandals in high places.

Women Writing Africa Project
>The product of a decade of research, this landmark collection is the first of four volumes in the Women Writing Africa Project, which seeks to document and map the extraordinary and diverse landscape of African women’s oral and written literatures. Presenting voices rarely heard outside Africa, some recorded as early as the mid-nineteenth century, as well as rediscovered gems by such well-known authors as Bessie Head and Doris Lessing, this volume reveals a living cultural legacy that will revolutionize the understanding of African women’s literary and cultural production. >Each text is accompanied by a scholarly headnote that provides detailed historical background. An introduction by the editors sets the broader historical stage and explores the many issues involved in collecting and combining orature and literature from diverse cultures in one volume. Unprecedented in its scope and achievement, this volume will be an essential resource for anyone interested in women’s history, culture, and literature in Africa, and worldwide.

Ńdébé is a modern writing system for the Ìgbò language, invented in 2009 by Lotanna Igwe-Odunze

> Atu and other Black Gold Coast writers pointed to European men who seduced young African women with material support only to exploit and abandon them. They attacked the hypocrisy of colonists who claimed to be advancing civilization but failed to care for their own mixed-race children. While the largely male writers often criticized the African women in these relationships for sexual immorality, they focused most of their ire on European men.