China’s advantage in Africa lies in the policy tools at its disposal and structural incentives that have forced Beijing to prioritize Africa-China relations. In addition to direct government-to-government dealings, Beijing can lean on state-owned policy banks to lend money to Africa governments for projects on condition that they work with Chinese implementing firms. Chinese private firms and privateers, like Tecno Mobile or Huawei, have excelled in African markets by showing up and selling cheaper but reliable enough products. Finally, as a rising revisionist power, China has been hungrier for African support at the United Nations and other multilateral forums; and therefore made Africa a diplomatic priority. You see this not just in trade statistics but also in the manner in which Chinese officialdom treats their African counterparts at a personal level.